Systems and Types of Memory
Memory is the way the mind stores and remembers information. It’s the mental capacity of retaining and retrieving facts, events, and impressions. Distinct memory systems are distinguished by the types of information they handle.
Declarative memory system handles factual information. It is comprised of two systems: The episodic memory system and the semantic memory system.
Episodic memory system stores dated recollections of personal experiences. For example: An individual’s first day of school, graduation from college or marriage.
Semantic memory system is where general (learned) knowledge is stored. For example: The Gettysburg Address given by Lincoln that was memorized in 6th grade.
Nondeclarative memory system (Procedural memory system) is where actions, perceptual motor skills, conditioned reflexes, emotional memories are stored. For example: Riding a bike.
Short-term memory: this type of memory is responsible for the temporary storage of information like a phone number. It has a limited capacity store that can maintain information for up to about 20 seconds. It is not used for manipulating information.
For information to be moved from short-term to long-term memory it must be practiced, rehearsed and memorized.
Long-term memory: this type of memory has an unlimited capacity for storing information for lengthy periods of time. Forgetting occurs when individuals can’t retrieve information from long-term memory. Retrieval cues are important to the process of recalling information.
Working memory is the way the mind stores and remembers information. It is the mental capacity of retaining and retrieving facts, events, and impressions. Working memory allows individuals to hold onto information, work with information and use information to learn and perform specific tasks.
Long or short-term visual memory: is the ability to recall what has been seen.
Auditory memory: is the ability to recall what has been heard.