Overview of PASS


Cognitive processes are important to learning because they influence how a child approaches a specific task. The four basic psychological processes are based on views developed by Russian neuropsychologist Alexander R. Luria. A specific theory used to describe the way the brain works is called PASS, which stands for Planning, Attention, Simultaneous and Successive cognitive processes (Naglieri, 1999,2008). Reading, writing and math involve these processes and underlie the acquisition of knowledge and skills.


Planning is the first cognitive process and is responsible for executive function where goals are formulated. It helps students select or develop necessary strategies to complete specific tasks.


Attention is the ability to focus on a task and maintain alertness until the task is accomplished. Attention is a mental process that involves focus on selected external and internal events.


Simultaneous processing is the ability to take separate pieces of information and see how they relate and interact as a whole.


Successive processing is the ability to work with information that is arranged in a specific order and organizing bits of information into a chainlike progression.

About the author

Vikki Carrel

Vikki Carrel

Academic Language Therapist, Multi-book Author, National Speaker

Vikki empowers people! She is an Academic Language Therapist, multi-book author and a national speaker. Vikki grew up in Salt Lake City, met her husband at the University of Utah, and has owned several companies across the United States. In 2010, Vikki and her husband moved back to Utah from Doylestown, Pennsylvania and she founded Vikki Carrel & Company, a speaking and training organization. Read more about the author

While living in the East, Vikki was an Academic Therapist in the Central Bucks School District. She offers her students a specialized and comprehensive approach to learning and supports those who have cognitive deficits in reading and writing, helping them to rebuild their learning continuum step-by-step. Vikki offers her students a wide range of intensive and individualized interventions designed to remediate their learning problems. She creates and implements a treatment plan that utilizes information from a variety of sources (neuropsychological evaluation, IEP, 504 plan) and works with school administrators, teachers, parents and support staff to help each of her students succeed. Her strength is working with children that have ADHD, Dyslexia, Dysgraphia and other language-based learning disabilities. Vikki holds a degree in Business Administration/Marketing and has a strong background in cognitive psychology. She and her husband have two grown sons and a daughter in law.

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