Dysgraphia is a specific learning disability in which the ability to express oneself through written language is impaired. It has the potential to cause problems with spelling, organizing words on a page, and putting thoughts on paper. It often overlaps with other cognitive disabilities such as dyslexia, speech impairment, attention deficit disorder, or developmental
Four Types of Dysgraphia
Dyslexic Dysgraphia – A student with Dyslexic Dysgraphia will have difficulty forming letters and sentences. Their written work will be illegible, and spelling will be poor. A student with Dyslexic Dysgraphia will not necessarily have Dyslexia. Dyslexia and Dysgraphia appear to be unrelated, but both can be present.
Motor Dysgraphia – Motor Dysgraphia is due to a deficient with fine motor skills or poor dexterity. Written work will be illegible, requires extreme effort and time to accomplish and writing can’t be sustained for a significant length of time. Writing is often slanted due to holding a pen or pencil incorrectly.
Spatial Dysgraphia – Spatial Dysgraphia is due to a defect in the understanding of space. A student will have illegible written work but normal spelling. Students with Spatial Dysgraphia often have trouble keeping their writing on the lines and difficulty with spacing between words.
Phonological Dysgraphia – Phonological Dysgraphia is characterized by writing and the spelling of unfamiliar words and phonetically irregular words. Individuals with Phonological Dysgraphia struggle to hold phonemes in memory and to recall them while writing.
Students may display some of the following:
A mixture of upper case/lower case letters
Irregular letter sizes and shapes
Struggle to use writing as a communications tool
Odd grip of pencil or pen
Decreased or increased speed of writing and copying of text
Talks to self while writing
Writing is often illegible
Struggle to complete writing tasks
Experience physical pain in fingers, hand or arm while writing
Poor use of lines and spaces while writing
Accommodations for Kids with Dysgraphia
Use of laptop for note taking and submitting written homework
Provide extra time to take notes and copy material from the board or a text book
No penalties for spelling or mechanical errors – grade on content, not mechanics
Provide lesson outlines
Additional time on writing assignments
Modify test format and/or types of questions
Additional time on tests – fill in the blank or essay questions
Provide a scribe so student can dictate answers on exams
Allow student to print, use cursive or a laptop for written assignments and essays
About the author
Academic Language Therapist, Multi-book Author, National Speaker
Vikki empowers people! She is an Academic Language Therapist, multi-book author and a national speaker. Vikki grew up in Salt Lake City, met her husband at the University of Utah, and has owned several companies across the United States. In 2010, Vikki and her husband moved back to Utah from Doylestown, Pennsylvania and she founded Vikki Carrel & Company, a speaking and training organization. Read more about the Author